Doxycycline is an antibiotic belonging to the tetracycline series of drugs demonstrating a wide spectrum of effects. This semi-synthetic antibiotic drug has a bacteriostatic effect on microorganisms; and it works by inhibiting the ability of microbes to multiply within the body. Doxycycline penetrates cells of microorganisms and works by blocking the synthesis of proteins.
Doxycycline demonstrates an effect on a large number of microbes and pathogens of aerobic (requiring oxygen for development) and anaerobic (can develop without access to oxygen) origins. Doxycycline is sensitive to streptococci and staphylococcus, E. coli and salmonella, dysenteric rod, Klebsiella and clostridia, pathogens of dangerous infections (cholera, plague, anthrax, and tularemia), sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis), malarial Plasmodium and other pathogens.
A wide range of effects of Doxycycline is particularly important in cases where the causative agent of the disease was not established for one reason or another. For example, development of pneumonia can be caused by various microorganisms.
Doxycycline does not affect fungi and viruses.
|Doxycycline||100 mg||200 mg|
Doxycycline is dispensed in the form of 100 mg capsules.
The usual dose of Doxycycline in adults is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (once or 100 mg every 12 hours); and following the drug is prescribed at a dose of 100 mg/day (once or 50 mg every 12 hours). For more severe infections (especially chronic urinary tract infections), Doxycycline should be administered at a dose of 200 mg/day over the full course of treatment.
Ingest Doxycycline prior to or immediately following a meal to reduce the risk of irritation of the esophagus and the stomach. Plenty of fluids should be consumed with Doxycycline. Simultaneous use of food (including milk) does little to affect the absorption of Doxycycline.
Capsules should be swallowed while seated upright or standing and a long time prior to going to bed in order to reduce the risk of developing irritation or ulceration of the esophagus.
The duration of the course of Doxycycline treatment should be prescribed by a doctor on a case-to-case basis. Treatment should be continued for at least 24-48 hours after symptoms disappear and normalization of body temperature.
In cases of streptococcal infections, the drug should be used for at least ten days to prevent the development of rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis.
For adults and children aged 12 years and over with a body weight over 45 kg, for the first day of treatment of acute infections, the daily dose of Doxycycline should be 200 mg (once or 100 mg at intervals of 12 hours); and for the following days the dosage should be 100 mg/day. For the treatment of severe infections (especially chronic urological infections), a dose of 200 mg per day should be used over the full course of the treatment period.
How fast does Doxycycline work
After 2 hours after taking Doxycycline, the antibiotic reaches the maximum concentration within blood plasma and binds to plasma proteins (up to 95%).
How long does Doxycycline work
Depending on the dose, the therapeutic concentration within the blood is maintained for 15-24 hours. This allows for a dosing scheme of Doxycycline once per day.
Doxycycline is used to treat infections caused by sensitive strains of gram-positive and/or gram-negative microorganisms as well as some other microorganisms. This includes:
- Infections of the respiratory tract such as pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract diseases caused by Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella, Mycoplasma, Chronic bronchitis, and/or sinusitis
- Urinary tract infections caused by sensitive strains of Klebsiella, Enterobacter, as well as Escherichia coli, and/or Streptococcus faecalis
- Sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
- Uncomplicated urethral and endocervical infections and rectal infections
- Non-monocytic urethritis caused by T-mycoplasma
- Mild chancre, inguinal granuloma, venereal granuloma
- Gonorrhea and syphilis
- Skin infections: acne with the need for antibiotic therapy
Treatment of infections caused by microorganisms that are sensitive to tetracycline.
- Ophthalmic infections: infections caused by sensitive bacteria Gonococci, Staphylococci and Haemophilus influenza.
- Rickettsial infections: a group of typhus fever, spotted fever of rocky mountains, Ku fever, Moche fever, endocarditis caused by Coxiella.
- Other infections: ornithosis, brucellosis (when used in combination with streptomycin), cholera, bubonic plague, epidemic typhoid fever, tick-borne fever, tularemia, melioidosis.
- Tropical malaria resistant to chloroquine.
- Acute intestinal amebiasis (when used in combination with amebicide).
- Leptospirosis, gas gangrene, tetanus.
Prevention of the following conditions: Japanese river fever, diarrhea (caused by Escherichia coli), leptospirosis, and/or malaria.
- Hypersensitivity to tetracyclines, doxycycline, and other drug components
- severe hepatic insufficiency
Doxycycline is contraindicated for use in children under 12 years of age.
Elderly patients: dose adjustment is not required.
Alcohol consumption should not occur while on Doxycycline therapy.
Scientific reports demonstrate that the absorption of Doxycycline is different from other forms of tetracyclines, and the effectiveness of this drug is not influenced by concurrent food consumption (including milk).
- Increase in intracranial pressure (decreased appetite, vomiting, headache, edema of the optic nerve) as well as toxic effects on the central nervous system (dizziness or instability).
- Noise in ears.
- Tachycardia, edema, pericarditis, and/or hypotension.
- Nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, abdominal pain, glossitis, dysphagia, esophagitis (including erosive), gastritis, ulceration of the stomach and duodenum, and/or enterocolitis (due to the proliferation of resistant strains of staphylococci).
- Maculopapular rash, skin itching, urticaria, skin hyperemia, anaphylactic shock, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions, angioedema, drug lupus erythematosus, and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
- Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, eosinophilia, and/or porphyria.
- Jaundice, hepatitis (rare), transient increase in liver function, liver failure, increased urea concentration in the blood serum, arthralgia, myalgia, photosensitivity, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, serum sickness, pseudomembranous colitis, superinfection, stable change in the color of tooth enamel, inflammation in the anogenital zone, candidiasis (vaginitis, glossitis, stomatitis, proctitis), dysbiosis, and/or hot flushes.
Doxycycline use is contraindicated during pregnancy and/or lactation.
Ability to influence the speed of reaction
Patients should refrain from all activities requiring increased attention as well as the need for rapid mental and motor reaction timing.
Interaction with other drugs
Doxycycline can increase plasma concentrations of cyclosporine.
The combined use of tetracyclines and methoxyflurane (drugs for inhalation anesthesia) can lead to the development of severe renal failure (including death).
Doxycycline should not be combined with agents containing metal ions (antacids containing salts of aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, preparations containing ions of manganese, zinc, iron preparations) in connection with the formation of inactive chelates. Absorption of doxycycline inhibits cholestyramine. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin reduce the concentration of doxycycline in plasma serum. Doxycycline reduces the effectiveness of penicillin as well as oral contraceptives. Doxycycline use when combined with anticoagulant therapy, thorough control of blood coagulation is required (against the background of tetracyclines, the synthesis of vitamin K decreases).
Acute overdose of antibiotics is rare. If this occurs, the use of Doxycycline should be discontinued.